vim的grep插件`Leaderf rg`:grep和模糊匹配的完美结合



  • 前言

    vim有很多著名的grep插件,我使用过的有ack.vim,ag.vim和ctrlsf.vim,它们应该也是目前用户最多的几个了。

    1. ack.vim
      起步比较早,早期后端grep工具是ack,后来也支持ag(the_silver_searcher),pt(the_platinum_searcher),rg(ripgrep)等工具了。它是一个比较传统的grep插件,不支持异步,要等到grep结束后才能显示结果,在大的项目中grep会卡好一阵子。它貌似也不再维护,我N久前提交的pull request还挂在那,它最近的代码更新在11个月前。
    2. ag.vim
      它其实是抄袭ack.vim,没错,是抄袭。在早期ack.vim还不支持ag时,它的作者在ack.vim代码的基础上稍微改了改,支持了ag。后来被ack.vim的作者给怼了,就放弃了对ag.vim的维护。目前功能上小于ack.vim。
    3. ctrlsf.vim
      这是国人开发的一个插件, 后端grep工具支持ack/ag/pt/rg,同时也支持异步,不过需要Vim 8.0.1039+或者NeoVim才支持异步。这个插件很好用,在我开发Leaderf rg之前一直使用的是它。

    Leaderf rg顾名思义,后端基于rg,由于是LeaderF的子功能,基因上就决定它完美支持异步。同时LeaderF又是一个非著名的模糊查找插件,这使它可以在grep结果的基础上再通过模糊匹配的方式进行二次过滤,来帮助用户更快地锁定目标,这是目前上面提到的插件所不具备的。

    为什么选择rg(ripgrep)

    快速grep工具目前有ag, rg, pt, sift, ucg等。
    我选择rg有以下几点原因:

    1. 速度比较快,rg的README上有作者的对比,我实测也是rg快点。
    2. Windows上bug少(bug到目前还没发现),ag和pt都遇到过bug。
    3. 作者很活跃,提的issue能很快得到回复。
    4. rg功能相对多些,可以从rg --help 看出来。

    Leaderf rg 使用介绍

    Leaderf rg的使用也比较简单,只要Leaderf[!] + rg命令和选项(同命令行上一样)就可以了。
    具体使用方法可以用:Leaderf rg -h来查看。

    usage: Leaderf[!] rg [-h] [-e <PATTERN>...] [-F] [-i] [-L] [-P] [-S] [-s] [-v]
                         [-w] [-x] [--hidden] [--no-config] [--no-ignore]
                         [--no-ignore-global] [--no-ignore-parent]
                         [--no-ignore-vcs] [--no-pcre2-unicode] [-E <ENCODING>]
                         [-M <NUM>] [-m <NUM>] [--max-depth <NUM>]
                         [--max-filesize <NUM+SUFFIX?>]
                         [--path-separator <SEPARATOR>] [--sort <SORTBY>]
                         [--sortr <SORTBY>] [-f <PATTERNFILE>...] [-g <GLOB>...]
                         [--iglob <GLOB>...] [--ignore-file <PATH>...]
                         [--type-add <TYPE_SPEC>...] [-t <TYPE>...] [-T <TYPE>...]
                         [--current-buffer | --all-buffers] [--recall] [--append]
                         [--reverse] [--stayOpen] [--input <INPUT> | --cword]
                         [--top | --bottom | --left | --right | --belowright | --aboveleft | --fullScreen]
                         [--nameOnly | --fullPath | --fuzzy | --regexMode] [--nowrap]
                         [<PATH> [<PATH> ...]]
    
    optional arguments:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
    
    specific arguments:
      -e <PATTERN>..., --regexp <PATTERN>...
                            A pattern to search for. This option can be provided multiple times, where all
                            patterns given are searched.
      -F, --fixed-strings   Treat the pattern as a literal string instead of a regular expression.
      -i, --ignore-case     Searches case insensitively.
      -L, --follow          Follow symbolic links while traversing directories.
      -P, --pcre2           When this flag is present, rg will use the PCRE2 regex engine instead of its
                            default regex engine.
      -S, --smart-case      Searches case insensitively if the pattern is all lowercase, case sensitively
                            otherwise.
      -s, --case-sensitive  Searches case sensitively.
      -v, --invert-match    Invert matching. Show lines that do not match the given patterns.
      -w, --word-regexp     Only show matches surrounded by word boundaries. This is roughly equivalent to
                            putting \b before and after all of the search patterns.
      -x, --line-regexp     Only show matches surrounded by line boundaries.
      --hidden              Search hidden files and directories. By default, hidden files and directories
                            are skipped.
      --no-config           Never read configuration files. When this flag is present, rg will not respect
                            the RIPGREP_CONFIG_PATH environment variable.
      --no-ignore           Don't respect ignore files (.gitignore, .ignore, etc.). This implies
                            --no-ignore-parent and --no-ignore-vcs.
      --no-ignore-global    Don't respect ignore files that come from 'global' sources such as git's
                            `core.excludesFile` configuration option (which defaults to
                            `$HOME/.config/git/ignore`).
      --no-ignore-parent    Don't respect ignore files (.gitignore, .ignore, etc.) in parent directories.
      --no-ignore-vcs       Don't respect version control ignore files (.gitignore, etc.).
      --no-pcre2-unicode    When PCRE2 matching is enabled, this flag will disable
                            Unicode mode, which is otherwise enabled by default.
      -E <ENCODING>, --encoding <ENCODING>
                            Specify the text encoding that rg will use on all files searched.
      -M <NUM>, --max-columns <NUM>
                            Don't print lines longer than this limit in bytes.
      -m <NUM>, --max-count <NUM>
                            Limit the number of matching lines per file searched to NUM.
      --max-depth <NUM>     Limit the depth of directory traversal to NUM levels beyond the paths given.
      --max-filesize <NUM+SUFFIX?>
                            Ignore files larger than NUM in size. This does not apply to directories.
      --path-separator <SEPARATOR>
                            Set the path separator to use when printing file paths.
      --sort <SORTBY>       This flag enables sorting of results in ascending order.
      --sortr <SORTBY>      This flag enables sorting of results in descending order.
      -f <PATTERNFILE>..., --file <PATTERNFILE>...
                            Search for patterns from the given file, with one pattern per line.
                            (This option can be provided multiple times.)
      -g <GLOB>..., --glob <GLOB>...
                            Include or exclude files and directories for searching that match the given
                            glob.(This option can be provided multiple times.)
      --iglob <GLOB>...     Include or exclude files and directories for searching that match the given glob.
                            Globs are matched case insensitively.(This option can be provided multiple times.)
      --ignore-file <PATH>...
                            Specifies a path to one or more .gitignore format rules files.
      --type-add <TYPE_SPEC>...
                            Add a new glob for a particular file type.
      -t <TYPE>..., --type <TYPE>...
                            Only search files matching TYPE. Multiple type flags may be provided.
      -T <TYPE>..., --type-not <TYPE>...
                            Do not search files matching TYPE. Multiple type-not flags may be provided.
      <PATH>                A file or directory to search. Directories are searched recursively. Paths
                            specified on the command line override glob and ignore rules.
      --current-buffer      Searches in current buffer.
      --all-buffers         Searches in all listed buffers.
      --recall              Recall last search. If the result window is closed, reopen it.
      --append              Append to the previous search results.
    
    common arguments:
      --reverse             show results in bottom-up order
      --stayOpen            don't quit LeaderF after accepting an entry
      --input <INPUT>       specifies INPUT as the pattern inputted in advance
      --cword               current word under cursor is inputted in advance
      --top                 the LeaderF window is at the top of the screen
      --bottom              the LeaderF window is at the bottom of the screen
      --left                the LeaderF window is at the left of the screen
      --right               the LeaderF window is at the right of the screen
      --belowright          the LeaderF window is at the belowright of the screen
      --aboveleft           the LeaderF window is at the aboveleft of the screen
      --fullScreen          the LeaderF window takes up the full screen
      --nameOnly            LeaderF is in NameOnly mode by default
      --fullPath            LeaderF is in FullPath mode by default
      --fuzzy               LeaderF is in Fuzzy mode by default
      --regexMode           LeaderF is in Regex mode by default
      --nowrap              long lines in the LeaderF window won't wrap
    
    If [!] is given, enter normal mode directly.
    

    注意:如果:Leaderf后面有感叹号,会直接进入normal模式;如果没有感叹号,则是输入模式,此时可以输入字符来进行模糊匹配过滤。可以用tab键在两个模式间来回切换。

    Leaderf rg基本支持rg所有的必要选项,用户如果对rg命令比较熟悉,可以在vim命令行内输入:Leaderf, 然后手敲rg命令,命令选项还可以通过tab来补全。
    当然,更聪明的做法是定义一些快捷键。例如:

    " search word under cursor, the pattern is treated as regex, and enter normal mode directly
    noremap <C-F> :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -e %s ", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    
    " search word under cursor, the pattern is treated as regex,
    " append the result to previous search results.
    noremap <C-G> :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg --append -e %s ", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    
    " search word under cursor literally only in current buffer
    noremap <C-B> :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -F --current-buffer -e %s ", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    
    " search word under cursor literally in all listed buffers
    noremap <C-D> :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -F --all-buffers -e %s ", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    
    " search visually selected text literally, don't quit LeaderF after accepting an entry
    xnoremap gf :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -F --stayOpen -e %s ", leaderf#Rg#visual())<CR>
    
    " recall last search. If the result window is closed, reopen it.
    noremap go :<C-U>Leaderf! rg --recall<CR>
    
    
    " search word under cursor in *.h and *.cpp files.
    noremap <Leader>a :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -e %s -g *.h -g *.cpp", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    " the same as above
    noremap <Leader>a :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -e %s -g *.{h,cpp}", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    
    " search word under cursor in cpp and java files.
    noremap <Leader>b :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -e %s -t cpp -t java", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    
    " search word under cursor in cpp files, exclude the *.hpp files
    noremap <Leader>c :<C-U><C-R>=printf("Leaderf! rg -e %s -t cpp -g !*.hpp", expand("<cword>"))<CR>
    

    参考:rg的glob语法

    顺便说一下,直接在vim命令行敲:Leaderf rg,就会有传说中的"grep on the fly"的功能哦,同时支持fuzzy和regex两种模式。

    会不会支持ag等其他grep工具

    不会。
    首先,ripgrep已经足够强大,基本不存在别的工具有而ripgrep没有的功能。其次,ripgrep有编译好的Windows、Linux和MacOS上的binary,可以在这些平台上很容易安装。再者,由于作者比较懒,不想再实现重复的功能。